DISCLAIMERS Only contribute if you have made any modifications to your Switch that are not approved by Nintendo. Do NOT submit a report if you have not modified your Switch in any way possible. That is because such a case has a or close to 0% chance of being banned which will skew the data. Any and all unauthorized modifications to your Nintendo Switch can result in a ban. Do NOT assume that just because someone has not been banned for certain actions that you will be safe yourself. If you do not want to be banned, either do not make any unauthorized modifications or connect your system online. Semi-Official Nintendo Switch Ban Form Ban? Y/N If Yes, provide proof (video preferred) SX used? Y/N SX used while online? Y/N Did you play any .XCI files online with a certificate/header? Y/N Do you have a certificate/header ban (look for error code 2124-4025)? Y/N Lowest SX Version used when Online/Offline (NOT Switch System Firmware)? X.X/N Non-TX Layered FS Used? Y/N Non-TX Layered FS Used while online? Y/N Played online w/ Non-TX Layered FS Injects? Y/N Used DevMenu? Y/N Installed any .NSP? Y/N Did you go online w/ any .NSP installed? Y/N Did you play any .NSP installed online? Y/N CDN Downloading? Y/N Backups updated? CFW/OFW/Both/N Homebrew/non-TX CFW Used? Y/N (Specify homebrew used/crashes) Connect to Internet w/ homebrew/non-TX CFW? Y/N Connect to eShop while using CFW/homebrew? Y/N AutoRCM? TX/Hekate/Both/N Did you update your firmware without burning fuses? Y/N receive-lp1.dg.srv.nintendo.net blocked and/or "Don't Share Usage Information" ticked under "Other Settings"? Y/N What firmware(s) were you on when you cleared error logs prior to going online? Y: X.X.X/N Disabled "Send Error Information" in System Settings? Y/N Wi-Fi settings deleted? Y/N Airplane mode? Y/N Auto-Update Software Enabled in System Settings? Y/N Can you use the eShop on the Switch? Y/N Can you use the eShop from a non-Switch device? Y/N Console/Account Region(s) Trimmed .XCI? Y/N Additional Comments Hello, GBATemp! Welcome to (yet another) thread about banned Switches! "What makes yours more special than the others?" I'm glad you asked, skeptical temper! This thread is dedicated towards compiling the actions of all Switch owners and comparing them to those who were banned and those who were not. I've also included some other neat bits of information such as detailing what each question means, the different types of bans, and analyzing what actions are more likely to get you banned (and why, if possible). Let's get started, shall we? Compiled Report of Switch User Actions Breakdown of the Spreadsheet Different Types of Switch Bans After being Banned Yet-to-be Recognized Potential Ban Causes Removed Categories Miscellaneous Remarks Credits This is where you will find information on how the data is compiled and put together as well as a link to the data in its rawest form (publicly). There is also a section on how the dataset can potentially be expanded given certain circumstances are met. The Actual Report Here is a link to the fully compiled report of Switch users' actions along with their ban status: Click Here! Be sure to check for your name and fill in the gaps to keep this as up-to-date as possible. Naturally, I've limited editing privileges to myself to prevent random people from vandalizing this information (would you believe me if I told you I haven't made a backup yet?) Submissions through GBATemp If you're gonna reply to this thread or you see someone who has been banned but don't know how to get the most information out of them as quickly as possible, use the above format. I will also be on the lookout for users outside of this thread, especially if they are banned. If you don't mind keeping an extra set of eyes open, we can make this data set as holistic as possible! Submissions through Gmail Let's say you or someone you know was banned but they don't want to go through the hassle of joining GBATemp (who wouldn't want to be a part of us?) I've set up a Google Doc Form to fill out for those in such a boat. There is also a link you can find in the spreadsheet itself. The only requirement is that you will need a Gmail account because the "Proof" portion of the survey requires you to upload it to your Google Drive. Also, I will try my best to check no less than once a week so if you submitted a form and its not there yet, give me more time. Expanding the Questionnaire Although there's many questions covering a broad range of causes, obviously I may have missed one or two minor details that could end up explaining certain bans. Or there are certain patterns users may feel need further research in order to properly study Nintendo's ban strategies. No new categories/questions will be added unless there is proof that a user has been banned for something that is not posed as a current question. The reason for this is because adding more and more unnecessary questions will not only create large amounts of empty white space, but may require additional questioning from users who have already contributed (which is inefficient). Alright, by now you've probably glanced at the Christmas-colored spreadsheet and are wondering what everything means or want to submit a report of your own. I will explain what each of the columns represent as well as additional information for certain columns as needed. Remember the Dates You'll notice there are dates next to some usernames. These are the most recent dates that the user has gone without being banned. Although these are feasibly impossible to update regularly, these may be useful to reference when future banwaves happen. Color Coordination For your viewing pleasure, not only is all of the data logged as "Y" for "Yes" and "N" for "No", each cell is colored to the corresponding action. Basically green=good, red=bad, and blue=somewhere in the middle. I have not stratified safety/risk level between those that share the same color. That information is shared in another section. Ban SX Used This indicates those who have booted up SX OS/Pro in any capacity. Originally, it refers to those who have used SX OS/Pro without any Internet connection, however some users were not clear enough when the data was being collected. So if you do not specify how you use SX OS/Pro, you will be labeled under this category by default. SX Online Similar to SX Used, all users who have used SX OS/Pro with an Internet connection fall under this distinction. This can include simply running it without even doing anything in the CFW to even verifying your license online from your Switch. .XCI + Cert Online If you've heard about SX OS/Pro, its prominent feature is the ability to launch backups. By themselves, they cannot play online, but if you inject a certificate, like from one of your own games, it gains the ability go online. This is different from SX Online because you are now connecting a game directly to Nintendo's servers as opposed to simply running SX OS in the background with an Internet connection. It should also be noted that injecting a foreign certificate will flag you for a ban as noted by the well-known hacker, SciresM here. There is also at least one user who reported a ban despite injecting a certificate from the same game as the one he injected it into (using SX OS) so assume matching certificates are unsafe otherwise. Cert Ban Nintendo has the ability to discern when certificates/headers are used illegitimately as compared to the 3DS era. However, not everyone who gets a console ban suffer from a certificate ban. Conversely, there are people who don't have a console ban but a certificate ban. The relevant error code is 2124-4025 which occurs when you try to use the online service of a game that contains the banned certificate/header. Also, certificate/header denote the same term. SX Version What version of SX OS used. In the event that anyone has used both versions, the lower one is logged (since statistically, firmwares are less safe the lower you go). The one exception is if the OS was activated offline on a lower firmware, but is used online at a higher firmware. This is to take into account that Nintendo may be monitoring users are running CFW. Non-TX LayeredFS DANGEROUS A hack that was meant to be used for file replacement was perverted to run backups. Long story short, it allows you to swap files from a game that you want to play into a game that is installed into your Switch so that you can play almost any game you want! While this gave us our first taste of backup launching, it was also the biggest red flag to Nintendo and caused the most bans, even to users who never used it online. Although not everyone has been banned for using this, assume that you will be banned if you want to try it. Non-TX LayeredFS Online DANGEROUS Forgive me for being lazy, but this is similar to SX Used vs. Online. Basically, you used LayeredFS while your Switch had some sort of Internet connection. But since people were banned despite being offline with it, this category is not very useful. Played with Non-TX LayeredFS Online DANGEROUS If you were desperate enough to use LayeredFS and with an Internet connection, this would be the next step up. This is where you played a game that had online functionality such as Splatoon 2, Mario Odyssey, MK8D, etc. Outside of the fact you risk reporting any and all error codes generated using LayeredFS on top of the certificate mismatch, this is begging for a ban. See "SX Online Backups" for more info about certificates used to go online. DevMenu An app that was leaked from an EDEV unit. For reference, this is what I am talking about. It has many functions from unlinking Nintendo Account to changing your Avatar to even installing titles. Unfortunately, titles installed with this tool require a proper ticket in order to launch. That's where SX OS V1.3 comes into play that bypasses this check. However since this program was made by Nintendo, if they have reason to believe you used it, a ban may be imminent. NSP Install Similar to .CIA for the 3DS, .NSP is the file format used for titles installed into the Switch. Since these need a proper ticket to be launched/installed, they should not exist and may lead to a ban. SX OS V1.3 implements the necessary signature patching to allow these titles to not only be installed but launched. It also goes without saying that you need an activated license to use this feature. NSP Online Since installed titles should not be possible without using the eShop, blatantly showing off to Nintendo that you have them by having an active Internet connection is worthy of a ban. Played with NSP Online Not only did you go behind Nintendo's back to install some backups, but you have the audacity to play them online? Add into the fact that certificates needed for online play pose a greater ban risk than certificates used for cartridges and you have a one-way ticket to ban-town. CDN THEORETICALLY DANGEROUS Remember Freeshop on the 3DS? If not, this is a tool used to download content straight from Nintendo's servers and onto your computer. However, this should guarantee a ban if Nintendo detects any suspicious activity because using this tool involves using your Switch's unique certificate. In laymen's terms, they know who is downloading what. For some reason, although many people have used it (they aren't listed here because they claimed to have used it in the CDN threads), there has not been one ban thus far due to CDN downloading. Updated Backups Most, if not all, games have updates that are provided by Nintendo. Games do not need any certificate/header to download an update. However, since you have to be on the latest firmware as well as having an Internet connection to download game updates, consider this one of the bigger risks towards a ban. This is further stratified into those who updated while running a CFW or OFW. Updating games while using a CFW is arguably more unsafe than if done in OFW. While it is possible to update games using SX OS in OFW by loading the backups in CFW then switching to OFW, this may or may not be 100% safe. Users have been banned so far for updating backups in OFW so it is very evident that the system is more than capable of capturing ban-worthy data in CFW that can be transmitted while your Switch is downloading game updates in OFW. Homebrew/non-TX CFW Used This category was not used when the initial data collection was conducted due to the culprits being either LayeredFS or SX OS/Pro (or both). However, a few users reported being banned despite not using either of the previously mentioned hacks. Thus, this category was born to acknowledge those who were extremely unlucky to have been banned for only using homebrew completely offline. For all other users, this category is toggled by default if they have used LayeredFS since LayeredFS is agreed to be the #1 cause for bans. It should also be worth noting that 2 users modified their saves. One conclusion to draw from this is that users were banned due to the console logging information about the homebrew/modifications in a place we cannot currently access nor see. Homebrew/non-TX CFW Online In an effort to identify potential causes, this question was initially posed to see if users were banned due to certain homebrew applications. However, there are nearly no users who have used homebrew while their Switch was connected to the Internet and were subsequently banned. On the other hand, there were people that were banned for using homebrew despite remaining off-the-grid while they were using homebrew. eShop in CFW/homebrew A category for users who may have not played any backups online, but instead logged into the eShop that potentially flagged them for a ban later on. Accessing the eShop can lead to a ban due to the service checking both your Nintendo Account as well as your console's unique certificate to allow access. In the midst of this process, additional data may be transmitted to Big Brother that can lead to a future ban. SciresM provides a nice write-up on how eShop access works here. AutoRCM This is a persistent modification made to the Switch that corrupts the BCT. In English, powering up the console now makes it boot into RCM and only RCM. It will no longer boot into Horizon (the main Switch OS) without sending a payload first. This category was suggested as another possible reason why certain SX OS users were banned despite the vast majority of SX OS users remaining unscathed. Although it is not known how TX is corrupting the BCT, it is considered separate from the other method of AutoRCM known as briccmii developed by rajkosto. This division is used in hopes of identifying whether or not one AutoRCM is safer than the other, assuming Nintendo can detect either in the first place. If you did not have AutoRCM installed the entire time, answer the question based on if AutoRCM was installed when you went online. Fuse Mismatch SX OS V1.2 now supports both anti-fuse burning as well as bypassing the fuses. Although it was possible to do this with Hekate, most people seems to have been banned due to LayeredFS alone (with a few exceptions). What this means is that it is possible for users to update to the latest firmware without burning fuses. This way, they can "downgrade" by restoring a dump of their NAND that has a firmware matching the number of fuses currently burnt. Time will tell if Nintendo can detect this and start banning people at will. GDPR Block A full explanation of this can be found here: http://taraftartekstil.com/threads/gdpr-fo...top-sharing-usage-data-no-telemetry.509556/In short, you can toggle a certain setting for EUR Switches/accounts or block a specific URL to eliminate a lot of the data sent to Nintendo. Clearly it was implemented to keep consumers data more safe but it may be used as a way to mitigate bans. Logs Cleared There is a payload known as nx-dreport that clears error logs contained within your device. Nintendo can potentially ban you if they see an abnormal error code that should not be triggered if your console is not hacked. For best results, this should be run before the console is given any connection to the Internet. While this tool may be useful on paper, as you will see there are several users who were banned despite clearing their error logs. This can only mean that the Switch is logging information outside of error logs that are not cleared when this payload is used. Based on this tweet from SciresM, running nx-dreport on firmwares 5 and above may be unsafe. As such, this is why it is recommended for users to be specific what firmware they ran this payload on. Disabled Error Reporting Under the "System" tab which is at the very bottom of "System Settings", there is a function known as "Send Error Information". As you guessed it, leaving this ticked on will send whatever error data your device has accumulated automatically to Nintendo when given the chance. While it may be a good idea to not send Nintendo as much info as possible, bans have occurred despite this option being toggled off. WiFi Deleted Outside of being an awkwardly posed question, some users were beginning to report bans despite remaining in Airplane Mode whilst utilizing various hacks (namely LayeredFS). While there is so far no confirmation of this, it is theorized that the console temporarily connects online if there are Internet connection settings saved even if the console is in Airplane Mode. Airplane Mode Simple and straightforward. However, the degree to which a user has used Airplane Mode does not correlate well with bans when looking at those who used LayeredFS. Many users were struck by the banhammer despite doing their best to remain offline via Airplane Mode after having used LayeredFS. This signifies that the Switch kept info about the user messing around with LayeredFS while completely offline that was subsequently sent to Nintendo once s/he took the Switch out of Airplane Mode. Auto-Update Software Similar to "Send Error Information", there is an option to "Auto-Update Software". Having this off is recommended as not only do you risk downloading a game/system update, but during that download, vital data may be once again sent to Nintendo's HQ that signals a ban. However, there is currently no correlation towards bans and users who have kept it on or off. eShop While I won't delve into the different types of bans here, Nintendo can restrict access to certain parts of their online services. One of them, as well as the easiest to test, is eShop access. Simply try to log into the eShop with your Nintendo Account on your Switch. Failure can be due to numerous reasons such as a banned Nintendo Account, banned Nintendo Switch console, both, or simply a restriction to the eShop alone. There appears to be no correlation between the offence and losing eShop access. Also assume that while you may have access one day, you may not have it the next. Non-Switch eShop Pretty self-explanatory. While this doesn't help in terms of identifying a cause, its useful more for categorizing the types of bans, especially with certain actions. If your console is banned but your Nintendo Account is not, it should still be able to work. It might even be worth asking Nintendo themselves to un-link it from your Switch if your account isn't banned yet. Whether or not they will is definitely something I can't guarantee. Region Initially, I did not want this to be asked but people kept on insisting so for future reference, you can see where most bans happened. It is theorized most of the bans concentrated in the USA which makes sense both from a statistical perspective and a legal one, but this does not mean much. Anyone is capable of being banned, regardless of region. Do not use this information as a type of safety net nor as a reason to accuse someone of being banned. Comments The questionnaire's not perfect and there might be something that banned/non-banned users do to retain their particular status. Feel free to add anything that is NOT obvious after answering the questionnaire. Who knows, it may wind up becoming a future category on the questionnaire. Proof Everyone's a critic and this is the Internet we are talking about. What with photoshop and everyone's voice carrying the same weight, the potential for anyone to be lying is ever present. This section is dedicated towards defying those who seek to twist and ignore otherwise compelling data. Video evidence is preferred above all else but if you must use a picture, try to include something that cannot easily/is likely be photoshopped. This section is merely for those who are curious about the different types of ban and wish to find out what type of ban(s) they have. This is not to be used to correlate which actions can lead to which type of ban as a lot of information is tied to games, consoles, and accounts. Certificate Bans Games require a certificate in order to be able to play online. If a user injects a certificate from a different game, it is flagged on Nintendo's servers. From there, they can choose to implement a certificate ban meaning any games injected with that header cannot go online. The relevant error code is 2124-4025. The practical application of this are in used games where people might try to sell games that are barred from online play. Although a sensible hacker would not risk returning a game that he dumped a header from (since if the same header goes online at 2 different locations simultaneously, its a red flag), it might be worth checking if the used game can play online. Source Banned Nintendo Accounts The Switch utilizes Nintendo Accounts for tracking Gold Coins, eShop purchases, and several other things. Nintendo has demonstrated the ability to ban Nintendo Accounts only as demonstrated by several users being able to still play games online but not access the eShop. As long as you don't mind losing your purchases, you can try unlinking your Nintendo Account from your Switch and setting up a new one. Due to how easy it is to circumvent these as well as possessing minor drawbacks, these bans are rare and usually accompanied with console bans. Bans for Switch Consoles This is so far the most irreversible ban. It stops all access to the eShop as well as online play. Although slightly possible, you may have a console ban but not an eShop ban however the difference is hard to spot. Since eShop access is tied to both the Nintendo Account and the console, you will need an unbanned console to properly test this. Another thing to keep in mind is that similar to used games and banned certificates, there is a chance you may encounter a banned used Switch. Nintendo does not bear any responsibility in the used video game market so use your best judgement before you make a purchase. So you just found out you were banned and you may be asking, what can I still do? There's actually plenty of things you can do depending on your ban type. Console bans are the most common type so assume I am referring to that in case it is not specified/clear. Game and System updates can still be possible for the Switch's lifetime. Probably has something to do with directly affecting the user experience as well as ironing some bugs that you would otherwise be unable to fix if Nintendo stopped you from receiving them. Not to mention that if you accidentally delete a game update after installing it, that game will no longer work without the update. Would you believe me if I told you could still buy/download stuff from the eShop? All you have to do is go to Nintendo's website, login with the Nintendo Account on your banned console, then proceed to acquired anything you would normally want. Turns out if you go to User/Profile (top left of the Home menu), go into "User Settings", then select "Update Download Progress", your console will begin downloading anything you just acquired from their website. Note: this only works so long as Nintendo has not restricted your Account from accessing their site meaning you don't have an account ban. These bans are rare so always perform this check to rule out the possibility. You can try un-linking your Nintendo Account from your banned console. One user, by the name of VegaNovus, supposedly got Nintendo to un-link his account by telling Nintendo he cannot access his Switch at all. If you tell them your console is banned and you want to un-link, chances may not be as high as the former dialogue option. At any rate, this is only useful if your console only is banned; if your account is banned, then there is no point in un-linking it. Based on the above, you can acquire new eShop titles after being banned and if you archive any of your installed titles, you can redownload them at any time without worrying about your ban status. But what happens if you accidentally delete any of your installed games? Unfortunately, the only workaround we have involves using eXhop, a homebrew app that works like eShop, to download those titles again. It bypasses the check if you are banned or not, but the titles will not work unless your account has legitimately purchased/downloaded them previously. While unprecedented, there is a possibility Nintendo may remove full CDN access to a banned console if it uses eXhop or any CDN downloader. Online Play is a stretch because you would need a certificate ban only. Based on how certificate bans work, they restrict online access with that specific certificate. But if you were to try going online with a non-banned certificate (and your console/account are both not banned), it will work. Another thing to note is that since Nintendo banned that certificate, they can also ban your console as well as your account because they are associated with the certificate when you went online. OK I may have been a bit harsh when it comes to adding new data points, but its not without good reason. New empty spots are created, may not be linked to a potential ban cause, or it provides little to no practical information. So this section will be filled with my and other people's ideas for potential unidentified causes for bans. That way, if you or someone you know is filling out the questionnaire and something doesn't add up, it might be worth consulting this section for something that was missed. Who knows, if enough people start reporting the same thing that leads to a ban, it can be officially added to the questionnaire! Trimmed .XCI In case you weren't already aware, .XCI files are the raw dumps of Switch cartridges. However, they are usually, if not always, filled with garbage data to ensure the game fits on the pre-determined-size cartridges. Theoretically, if Nintendo sees that you are running a trimmed .XCI, then they know for sure you violated their Terms of Service and either engaged in piracy, hacked your console, or both. The problem is they won't know that is is trimmed unless they know the original file size at which point they already know you are running a .XCI file which is evidence of a Terms of Service violation. Soldered Pin 10 While most users probably don't even have the skill to do this, let alone the gall, it is postulated that Nintendo may be able to detect whether pin 10 is constantly being shorted or not. If you recall, pin 10 needs to be shorted in order to enter RCM without AutoRCM or removing the eMMC (the Switch's NAND). Method of Payload Delivery Requested by @OhhSheetz , this can be added to those who fill out the questionnaire and wonder if Nintendo is able to detect certain methods of sending payloads over others. At the time of this writing, no user has been banned for using the dongle but likewise, very few people have been banned for using SX OS period. While it may help differentiate the reasons why so few SX OS users were banned now, it may be more useful down the road if SX OS users are banned en masse. Online Cheating/Hacking Users who were, how do I say this nicely, willing to risk their ban status on using any form of hacks/cheats in an online-based game and subsequently got banned should be specified on this list to avoid confusion with those who did much more "harmless" hacks like save dumping. The notable example of this was in Splatoon 2 via Octolings before the expansion or modified items/money. Unfortunately, those poor souls appears to have renounced their online status on the Internet as a whole and don't want to contribute. If you do confess your sins, they can be forever immortalized in this document for all to see to remind hackers to never ruin other's online experience. SD card Recorded Errors I thought it was an interesting idea so I included this here. Besides writing to some black box inside the Switch, its potentially possible Nintendo is logging data onto inserted SD cards. This can easily be tracked by keeping an eye on the capacity of the SD card. The recommendation would be to have it as empty as possible and to not undertake actions that would decrease the capacity. You will notice on the Google Doc Spreadsheet that there is a tab titled "Removed Categories". This is full of questions that used to be asked on the Semi-Official Report Form but were taken off due to various reasons. In an effort to not make the data collected completely null, it has been separated from the rest of the data so people can refer to it in the event that it may be prove useful in the future. Injected Cert using Layered FS DANGEROUS Assuming you are now an expert on LayeredFS, you use LayeredFS to inject a certificate into the backup of your choosing to play online. Not gonna beat a dead horse or repeat the glaring red warning slightly above. This category has been moved due to a possible redundancy in ban risk associated with LayeredFS. In short, since people have been banned for using LayeredFS solely offline, this category presents little to no extra risk. Not to mention that there are very few people who have done this and were banned (some people have not been banned despite doing this). The purpose of this thread is solely for the collection of information that may pertain to bans. Data for people who are not yet banned can still be collected to compare to those who are banned to rule out causes for bans. The purpose of this thread is NOT to speculate or defend potential reasons for bans. None of us (as far as I know) work for Nintendo so we cannot confirm who they ban, how they ban, or when they ban. All of the data collected in this thread is so far comprised of reports that originate from GBATemp, both from within this thread and anywhere else on the Switch sub-section. While I would love to collect data from outside, there are simply too many places to check. If you do see someone whose data is worth adding, either let me know or collect the data using the form and report it here. "When you have eliminated the impossible, whatever remains, however improbable, must be the truth." -Sherlock Holmes May not be much of an incentive, but I promise to like any posts that contribute towards providing new information to this thread such as new categories, metadata for Nintendo Switch bans, or contributing new data. Grammatical/punctual mistakes may be pointed out but will be awarded based on my mood. Let us work together so we can stay one step ahead of Nintendo and leave casualties to a minimum! CREDITS @Frexxos :For being the first to write up a questionnaire to pinpoint possible causes @SciresM :Write-ups on how Nintendo handles connections to their various online services @Thog :Created nx-dreport @Darien112 :Made an alternate Google Form for collecting data @OhhSheetz :Contains a link to this place in his thread @jjbredesen Publishing the thread on the new GDPR options for EUR Switch users @CrisFTW :Suggesting to start asking people about whether or not they are cert banned preemptively @tunip3 :Converting Reisyukaky's BogInstaller into eXhop @PatrickD85 Discovering a way to download eShop content without eXhop @VegaNovus :Came up with a way to trick Nintendo on how to un-link Nintendo Accounts from banned consoles And of course each and every single person who not only contributes their information but supports this endeavor!